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Lenses for optical components

Lenses are used primarily to focus or diverge light, either as a single component or as part of a larger array. Convex lenses focus light to a point, whereas concave lenses diverge light away from the source. The focal length of any lens is dictated by its diameter, radius of curvature and the refractive index of the material. Simply put, materials with a high refractive index such as Germanium (n=4.0) or high index flint glasses allow a lens to achieve a specific shorter focal length with a smaller diameter than the same lens made with a material of low refractive index. Materials also transmit in different wavelengths. Taking Germanium as an example again, UV and visible wavelength are blocked making the material appear opaque, but it allows IR transmission. This makes it undesirable for systems where UV or visible range

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